Standard & Non-standard DNA, RNA, and Protein Alphabets

FASTA Sequence

In bioinformatics/computational biology, a sequence is represented by ordered succession of characters (1-letter code of DNA/RNA/amino acid) known as alphabets. The standard type of alphabets include DNA alphabet [A, T, C, G], RNA alphabet [A, U, C, G], and amino acid alphabet [A, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, Y]. While, non-standard alphabets include DNA/RNA alphabet [B, D, H, K, M, N, R, S, V, W, Y], and amino acid alphabet [B, J, O, U , X, Z].

List of standard and non-standard DNA/RNA alphabets with 1-letter code is given in table below.

Nucleotide1-letter code
AdenineA
C, G, TB
CytosineC
A, G, TD
GuanineG
A, C, TH
G, TK
A, CM
A, T, U, C, GN
A, GR
G, CS
ThymineT
UracilU
A, C, GV
A, TW
C, TY

List of standard and non-standard amino-acid alphabets with 3-letter code and 1-letter code is given in table below.

Amino acid3-letter code1-letter code
AlanineAlaA
Aspartic acid (or) AsparagineAsxB
CysteineCysC
Aspartic acidAspD
Glutamic acidGluE
PhenylalaninePheF
GlycineGlyG
HistidineHisH
IsoleucineIleI
Leucine (or) IsoleucineXleJ
LysineLysK
LeucineLeuL
MethionineMetM
AsparagineAsnN
PyrrolysinePylO
ProlineProP
GlutamineGlnQ
ArginineArgR
SerineSerS
ThreonineThrT
SelenocysteineSecU
ValineValV
TryptophanTrpW
Any amino acidXaaX
TyrosineTyrY
Glutamic acid (or) GlutamineGlxZ

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